Property Tax

Property tax is the amount that is paid by the land owner to the municipal corporation or the local government for his/her area. The tax must be paid every year. Property, office buildings, and residential homes that are rented out to third parties are considered as real estate assets.

Property tax is charged by the government on all tangible real estate that an individual owns. These real estate assets could include residential homes, office buildings and premises rented out to third parties.

What is Property Tax?

Taxes are the primary source of income for a government, with the taxes earned dictating the resources available to citizens. Every property is an asset which is taxable, and the property tax is an annual amount paid by a property/land owner to the government. This tax could be paid either to the local state government or Municipal Corporation, depending on government policies.

The word “property” in this context refers to all tangible real estate under the ownership of an individual and includes houses, office buildings and premises rented to third parties. Property tax, as a concept has been around for centuries and is acknowledged across the globe, with records of farmers and peasants paying tax on their properties even in the middle ages.

Types of Property

Property, in India is classified into four categories, which help the government estimate tax based on certain criteria. The different property divisions in the country are mentioned below.

  • Land – in its most basic form, without any construction or improvement.
  • Improvements made to land - this includes immovable manmade creations like buildings and godowns.
  • Personal property – This includes movable man-made objects like cranes, cars or buses.
  • Intangible property

Present State of Property Tax:

Property tax in India is to be paid on “real property”, which includes land and improvements on land, with the government appraising the monetary value of each such property and assessing the tax in proportion to its value. It is the duty of the municipality of a particular area to do this assessment and determine the property tax, which can be paid either on an annual or semi-annual basis. This tax amount is used to develop local amenities including road repairs, maintenance of parks and public schools, etc. Property tax varies from location to location and can be different in different cities and municipalities.

How to Pay Property Tax Online?

The internet has made a huge impact on how the world functions, opening new doors and simplifying lives. Paying property tax was considered a huge hassle in the past, but those days are long gone, thanks to the option of paying property tax online. Most municipal corporations provide the option of paying property tax online, streamlining the process and saving valuable time.

Steps to Pay Property Tax Online

  • Step - 1:Log in to the official website of their municipality/city corporation.
  • Step - 2: Choose the tab indicating property tax and navigate to the payment option.
  • Step - 3: Choose the right form (either 4 or 5), based on the category under which an individual’s property falls. These forms are used to determine if any changes have been made to a property in question.
  • Step - 4: Choose the assessment year. This is the year for which property tax needs to be calculated and paid. Most corporations provide an option to clear backlogs in property tax payment.
  • Step - 5: Individuals will then be required to fill in their property identification number and any other relevant document pertaining to their property (zone under which it falls, property type, etc.) including the owner’s name.
  • Step - 6: Once all relevant information has been entered, individuals can choose the mode of payment, which could be credit/debit cards or internet banking.
  • Step - 7: Once payment is made individuals can take a printout of the challan for their reference.

Note: These are the basic steps involved in paying property tax online and could vary depending on the city/town corporation.

Calculation of Property Tax

The formula used for calculating property tax is given below:

Property tax = base value × built-up area × Age factor × type of building × category of use × floor factor.

Property tax in India depends on the location of a property in question, with taxes varying from state to state. Different civic corporations use different methods to calculate tax, but the general overview of such calculations remains the same and is explained below.

An assessment of the property is first carried out by determining the area it is in, occupancy status (whether it is self-occupied or rented out), type of property (residential, commercial or land), amenities provided (car park, rainwater harvesting, store, etc.), year of construction, type of construction (multi-storied/ single floor/ pukka or kutcha structure, etc.), Floor space index and carpeted square area of the property.

Once these parameters are determined the civic agency can use a formula it deems fit to calculate tax. Different agencies use different formula.

The tax on a property will vary according to the factors mentioned above and can be easily computed online, through the official website of the municipal corporation concerned.

Different Methods of Calculating Property Tax

In general, the municipal authorities use one of the following 3 methods for the purpose of calculation of property tax:

  1. Capital Value System (CVS): Under the Capital Value System (CVS), the property tax is calculated as a percentage of the market value of the property. The market value of the property is decided by the government on the basis of the locality of the property. This valuation system is followed in the city of Mumbai.
  2. Unit Area Value System (UAS): The tax valuation as per the Unit Area Value System or UAS is calculated on the basis of the per unit price of the built-up area of the property. This price is decided on the basis of the expected returns of the property as per its location, usage, and land price. This value is further multiplied with the built-up area of the property to derive the tax valuation. A number of municipal authorities such as Patna, Bengaluru, Delhi, Hyderabad, and Kolkata follow this method.
  3. Annual Rental Value System or Ratable Value System (RVS): As per the RVS or the Annual Rental Value System, the tax is calculated on the rental value which is derived from the property in a year. This need not be the actual rent amount which is collected from the property. However, it is the valuation of the rent which is determined by the municipal authority and is derived on the basis of the location, size, and condition of the property. The proximity of the property to landmarks and other relevant amenities is also taken under consideration at the time of valuation. Chennai and parts of Hyderabad follow this method of tax calculation.

Interest on Property Tax

Late payments towards property tax can attract a fine, generally equivalent to a certain percentage of the amount due. This interest varies from state to state, with some states choosing to waive off such interest and others charging rates from 5% to 20%, depending on their individual policies.

For Example:

Some states waived off penalties on property tax while Bangalore decided to slash interest for late payments from 20% to 10%, in a bid to get more people to pay their dues.

Computation of Income from House Property

Understanding income from house property can be tricky. To make it simple, here are a few things to keep in mind:

  • Only the Net Annual Value of your house(s) is considered for taxation. Net Annual Value is arrived at when you deduct the municipal taxes paid on the property from the gross annual value of the house. For example, if you are receiving Rs.1.2 lakh as rent annually on a house you have let out, and you are paying Rs.40,000 as municipal taxes, then the Net Annual Value of your house is Rs.80,000, and you have to pay tax only on this amount.
  • If your house(s) is lying vacant for any period during the financial year due to lack of tenants, you have to consider only the income received as rent and not compute it against the whole 12 months. For example, if a house yielding Rs.17,000 as rent is vacant for 4 months of the fiscal year, then the gross value of the house will be Rs.1,36,000 (Rs.17,000 * 8). Tax payable on this income will be calculated after deducting the municipal tax amount paid and the standard deduction of 30%.
  • If your house(s) is lying vacant and not giving you any income, but you are paying municipal taxes, you can offset this loss against income from other sources – such as your salary or rent from any other property – during the same fiscal. If you are unable to offset the loss in the same year, you can carry forward this loss for up to 8 years.

Tax Deductions against Income from Property

Section 24 is titled as “Deductions from income from house property”. ‘Income from house property’ is applicable in the following cases:

  • If you are renting out your house(s), then the rent received will be considered as part of your income
  • If you have more than 1 house, then the Net Annual Value of the houses, except the house you are living in, will be considered as your income.
  • If you own only 1 house and you are living in it, the income from house property will be considered as NIL. Any income derived from rent and annual value of additional houses, will be subject to tax after deductions made under Section 24.

Deductions under Section 24

There are 2 types of deductions under Section 24 of the Income Tax Act:

  • Standard deduction: This is an exemption allowed to every taxpayer, where a sum equal to 30% of the net annual value does not come under the tax limit. This is not applicable if you are occupying the only house you own.
  • Interest on loan: If you have taken a home loan for purchase, construction or renovation of the house, whatever interest you pay on the principal amount of the loan is exempted from tax payment. The sub-clauses in this category are:
  • If the loan has been taken for a self-occupied property, then you can claim exemptions of up to Rs.2 lakh.
  • If you took a loan for purchase or construction (not renovation) of a property before actually buying or completing its construction, you can still claim the interest. You can seek deductions on the interest paid before the construction or purchase is completed, in 5 equal instalments, from the year in which the house is bought or the construction is completed.
  • If the loan is taken for renovation or reconstruction of a house, you cannot claim tax exemption until the renovation is completed.

To avail this deduction, you need to compute the interest amount you have to pay to the bank or financial institution that you took the loan from, separate from the principal repayment. It does not matter whether you have actually paid the amount to the financier – you can get exemption for the complete annual interest amount.

Exceptions under Section 24

  • If the house is not occupied by you, you can claim exemption for the whole interest amount that you are paying, without any upper limit.
  • If the house is not occupied by you because you live in another town due to your employment or business, or you live in another property or rented property in the city of your employment, then you can claim tax exemption on interest payment only up to Rs.2 lakh.
  • There is no deduction for any brokerage or commission for arranging the loan or tenant.
  • You have to buy or complete construction of the house within 3 years of taking the loan for you to be able to claim maximum deduction on the loan interest amount. If the construction or purchase is not complete within 3 years, you will be able to claim only Rs.30,000 instead of Rs.2 lakh.
  • You must have an interest certificate for the loan that you are taking.

Deduction under Section 80C

Individuals who purchase a new house can claim deductions under section 80c of the Income Tax Act. Under this clause, deductions can be claimed for stamp duty and registration charges, which could add up to around 10% of the total cost of a house. Deductions claimed under this section are subject to the condition that they do not exceed Rs 1.5 lakh.

Individuals can also claim a deduction towards any other expense during the process of transfer of property. Homeowners should keep in mind that this is applicable only for new residential properties.

Capital Gains Tax on Property:

Capital gains tax refers to the tax levied on the profit which is the outcome of a property sale. Capital gains tax can be a major source of wealth drain if not handled smartly. A simple way to handle this is to purchase a new house from the proceeds of a property sale, keeping in mind that such property should be purchased within two years of sale. Proceeds from a property sale can also be used to construct a house, ensuring that capital gains tax on property doesn’t become too taxing.

FAQ's on Property Tax

  1. Is property tax decided by the central government?
  2. No. Property tax is determined by your local administration – that is, urban local bodies such as Municipal Corporation and similar organisations.

  3. My house owner says I as a tenant should pay the property tax. Is that legal?
  4. No. In certain countries tenants are liable to pay property tax but in India the house owner has to pay the tax. If your house owner is forcing you to pay this amount, then you can sue him in the civil court.

  5. Is there any way I can get exemption from property tax?
  6. You may get a property tax exemption based on your age (if you are a super senior citizen, for example), net income of the individual, type of property, location of property (if it is located in a famine zone or such affected regions), history of public service or value of the taxable property. If you have a vacant plot of land, you don’t have to pay property tax on it. You need to check with your local administration for the details.

  7. Why is my property tax assessment higher than the value of my property?
  8. Either you are not aware of the market value of your property, or your assessment is wrong. It is best to approach your local administration and clarify. The tax bill will also give you a clue on why the tax amount is high.

  9. Can I make property tax payments online?
  10. This depends on your municipal authority. If they allow online payment of property tax, you can make use of that facility. Bengaluru, for example, has recently started allowing property tax payments online.

News About Property Tax

  • DMC to collect commercial property tax from new wards

    A detailed plan has been prepared by the Dehdradun Municipal Corporation (DMC) where they will collect commercial tax from business owners in the 32 newly added wards in the district.

    The rate at which the tax will be collected has also been finalised by the DMC. These rates will depend on factors such as the width of the road outside the construction, type of establishment etc.

    10 December 2020

  • Municipal Corporation of Chandigarh collects Rs.18 crore from property tax in past 2 months

    More than 60% people in the city of Chandigarh have not yet paid property tax. The last date for the payment of the tax has been marked as the 31st of July 2020. In the last two months, with the lockdown still in effect, the municipal corporation which is starving for cash has earned a total of Rs.18 crore from residential and commercial property owners.

    The tax branch of the Municipal Corporation of Chandigarh has recently notified that a total of 1.06 lakh residential and commercial tax payers in the city along with 32,332 residential property owners and 7,405 commercial property owners have paid the tax till date. Out of the total collection of Rs.18 crore, Rs.8.17 crore was collected from residential property owners and the remaining Rs.9.90 crore was collected from commercial property. These figures include all the arrears as well.

    07 July 2020

  • Filing of property tax online gaining momentum in Nagpur

    The online property tax filing facility which was set up seven years ago in 2013 by the Nagpur Municipal Corporation is now seeing increased activity. The number of taxpayers who are opting for the online payment of taxes are increasing every year. In the fiscal year of 2019-2020, Rs.37 crore was collected in taxes through the online portal of tax payment. This amounts to 15.23% of the Nagpur Municipal Corporation’s total property tax income.

    Milind Meshram, Assistant Municipal Commissioner (Property Tax department) stated that many options have been made available for the people to pay the tax. Along with the online portal, people can also visit the zonal offices or banks to pay their taxes offline.

    The number of property owners opting for tax payment online has increased compared to 4% of the owners had paid their property tax online in 2015-2016 and 2017-2018, around 9.56% of the people in the city had paid property tax online and the percentage increased in 2018-2019 at 10.96%.

    15 June 2020

  • MCD will resume property tax collection

    After three months, the property tax collection is set to resume in Municipal Corporation of Dehradun (MCD). In order to avoid the spread of Coronavirus, the tax department of the corporation will start its operations in Town Hall. Vinay Shankar Pandey has said that the seats in the Town Hall will be marked with numbers in order to maintain distance among all taxpayers and also the MCD officials. He had added that 25 tokens will be issued every day in order to meet the guidelines of use of masks, sanitisers being ensured and social distancing. He had said that no one will be allowed to enter the MCD area without wearing a mask.

    Tokens will be given to taxpayers who arrive between 10:00 a.m. and 11:30 a.m. during working days. Although only 25 people will be permitted to submit their tax in one day, additional tokens will be issued on the next day.

    He had said that people should deposit their property taxes online from their homes. Taking into account the current situation, if a taxpayer cannot deposit residential tax online or even visit the MCD campus, they can always contact officials for providing this facility at their homes.

    People who could not submit their property tax for 2019-2020 by March can now submit it with a 20% rebate until 22 June. If this period is not extended, taxpayers are required to submit their tax including a penalty.

    08 June 2020

  • 60% owners default on property tax, dues over Rs.679 crore

    Around 60% of property owners in Nagpur have defaulted on the Nagpur Municipal Corporation (NMC) property tax for the year, 2019-2020.

    The property tax department has said that of the 6,84,750 property owners, 2,75,480 have paid tax of Rs.108.77 crore during the last financial year, and around 4.09 lakh commercial and residential property owners have not paid dues of Rs.125.19 crore.

    The tax dues, excluding the current property tax demand, have exceeded Rs.679.04 crore from 4,36,681 owners.

    22 May 2020

  • Chandigarh MC issues public notice urging assesses to pay property tax with rebate before July 31

    The Chandigarh Municipal Corporation issued a public notice asking assesses to pay their property tax with rebate before July 31. As per the corporation, residential properties will get a 20 percent rebate while commercial units can claim 10 percent rebate. It informed that 25 percent penalty along with interest on the principal will be applied if the tax is paid after July 31. The payment of property tax can be made through the e-sampark portal or at e-sampark centres. It must be noted here that economically weaker sections, defence personnel, veterans and widows are exempted from it.

    The Municipal Corporation which collected Rs.52 crore as tax in 2019-20 is targeting tax collection of Rs.48 crore in this fiscal. Chandigarh has 90,000 residential assesses and 23,000 commercial and institutional assesses.

    19 May 2020

  • Activists sought Property tax breaks from KMC

    Activists in Kolhapur have condemned Kolhapur Municipal Corporation (KMC) decision of not offering tax breaks to them. KMC has been offering a concession of 6 percent to those who are paying the property tax within the first three months of the fiscal. The move has helped the civic body collect over Rs.40 lakh.

    As per the activists, the decision of the civic body is an insensitive decision and stated that the tax concession could have been announced after the lockdown ended. They claimed that due to concession many owners are harassing their tenants to pay the rent and other bills. On the matter of tax breaks, the chief property tax superintendent stated that there is no such policy in place in the rule books.

    17 May 2020

  • New deadline for paying property tax is July 31

    With V P Singh Badnore, Punjab governor and Chandigarh administrator having cleared the proposal, owners of commercial and residential properties can pay taxes for the financial year by July 31.

    All residential properties can now avail 20% rebate. Commercial properties on the other hand can avail 10% up to July 31. After this date, they will have to pay a penalty of 25% and also an interest of 12% on their tax amount.

    The tax branch of Chandigarh municipal corporation has now finished printing of the property bills and they have been dispatched this week. Property tax bills will posted and every property owner will get their bill at their doorstep

    09 May 2020

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