The Credit Information Bureau (India) Ltd, better known as CIBIL, is the premier agency for providing credit reports and scores pertaining to individuals. CIBIL sources financial data of individuals such as loan and credit card information from leading banks and other financial institutions in India. This data is then presented in the form of a CIBIL credit report, also known as a Credit Information Report (CIR).
CIBIL was incorporated in 2000 and has continued to expand its presence throughout the country. It is backed by TransUnion International and Dun and Bradstreet, which are major global credit bureaus and agencies.
What is CIBIL Score / credit score?
CIBIL Credit score is a numerical expression that is based on your credit files which represents your creditworthiness. It includes all the details of the credit that you have acquired throughout the years. It also shows how much credit you have taken and how you have repaid it. It will also show if you have missed making any payments or if you have settled any loan. It contains your debt and repayment history along with all your relevant details.
Credit score is calculated based on your credit report based on the intensive in-house algorithm calculations. One of the oldest credit rating agency is Credit Information Bureau or CIBIL. CIBIL scores their ratings from 300-900, 300 being the lowest. Equifax is another such credit rating agency, they score between 1 – 999 points.
CIBIL scores are calculated on the basis of at least 6 months of historical financial data of an individual. The data is fed into an algorithm with 258 different variables; each with a different weightage.
The other credit rating agencies are Experian and Crif Highmark. All the agencies are approved by the Reserve Bank of India and offer credit report services to the banks and the other financial institutions.
What is a CIBIL Score?
A CIBIL Score is a numeric summary of credit history that is calculated based on the following factors:
|Track Record of Past Payments||
|Previous Settlements, Defaults, Write-offs||
|Loans as Proportion of Income||
|Secured Loans vs. Unsecured Loans and credit cards||
CIBIL Score Range
A CIBIL score can range from 300 to 900 with 300 being the bottom end and 900 being the best score possible. Here is what your score could mean.
0 or -1: If your score is 0 then it just means that you have no credit history created via a credit card or loans. You might want to consider taking one so that you can get a credit history going.
350 – 550: Alarm bells should be ringing because this is a bad score. It means you have been defaulting on payments and the chances of getting new loans/credit cards are minimal.
550 – 650: This is an acceptable region to be in since it indicates that you are fairly regular with your payments and can be trusted with new loans and cards. Your loan applications are also likely to be approved.
650 – 750: You are on the right path. You will not face too many problems with loans and credit cards and should you stick to your current habits, you could reach the best CIBIL scores too.
750 – 900: This is the best range to be in since it means that you are a financial guru. You are regular with credit payments are have a really good payment history. Banks will tend to be very will to offer you credit products with such a score.
- It helps in analysing your true financial standing and make plans for future finances.
- You can be on top of your borrowings and avoid debt traps.
- With a CIBIL score in hand, you are in a great position to make decisions regarding availing new forms of credit, while also being able to extract the best possible rates from banks or other lenders.
- It helps in cultivating financial discipline.
Things that positively affect your credit score
- On time loan EMI payments.
- Regular payment of credit card bills.
- Paying credit card bills in full rather than paying minimum due amount every time.
- Avoiding over-leveraging.
- Maintaining strong financial records.
- Too many forms of credit (such as unsecured personal loans) among family members.
- Proper utilization of approved credit limit.
- Ensuring banks and other financial institutions you’re dealing with record and submit positive information to CIBIL.
- Requesting and maintaining a copy personally rather than through financial institutions.
Things that negatively affect your credit score
- Too many credit report enquiries by banks and other institutions.
- Cheque bounces/dishonours.
- Irregular loan repayments.
- Defaulting on credit card bills/ making late payments or consistent part payments.
- Too much unsecured credit such as multiple personal loans.
- Multiple applications for unsecured loan getting rejected.
- Defaulting as a guarantor.
- High utilization of approved credit limit or overshooting the limit.
- Errors in record by banks and other finance institutions.
- Easy availability of credit such as loans. According to the official CIBIL website, about 90% of loan applicants with CIBIL score greater than 700 are approved for loans.
- Quick processing of loan and credit card applications.
- Ability to negotiate interest rates owing to your strong financial standing.
- Though not guaranteed, the possibility of negotiating or waiving processing fees as well as choosing prepayment options.
How to get CIBIL credit scores online
CIBIL credit ratings can be checked online by following a few simple steps, as outlined below.
- Log on to the official CIBIL website and click on Know Your Score.
- Fill up the online form which asks for details such as name, date of birth, address, id proof, past loan history and other relevant data.
- On filling the form and accepting changes, you will be taken to the payments page. You can choose from multiple modes of payment such as prepaid cards, credit cards, net banking etc. A payment of Rs.470 has to be made to CIBIL to get your credit report.
- After successfully making the payment, you will be taken to an authentication page. Here, you will be required to answer 5 questions related to your credit history of which you will have to answer at least 3 questions correctly to authenticate your identity with CIBIL. Your report will be sent to your email address within the next 24 hours.
- If authentication fails, you can fill and send a hard copy of the application to CIBIL by mail. You will subsequently also receive the report by mail.
To obtain your credit score and credit report you will need to contact the credit rating agency in India, CIBIL. They will be charges involved to obtain a credit score and credit report. Any individual wanting this report will need to pay an amount of maximum Rs. 500 to obtain this report, the application process with payment applies to both individuals and institutions. Let’s say a bank or financial institutions needs your credit report with your score to check your loan eligibility, even they will need to make a payment for that copy. There are a few websites that will promise to give you, your credit report and score for free, but will ask you to sign up with them or become a member of their website etc.
Difference between CIBIL Report and CIBIL Score
A CIBIL report, also known as a Credit Information Report (CIR) is a document listing all your borrowings and repayment histories. The CIBIL score or rating is derived out of this data as well as other variables that affect your financial position.
CIBIL scores have become the benchmark for credit worthiness in India. While CIBIL was the first Indian credit bureau, other international players have also started providing credit scores in recent years such as Experian Credit Information Company India Pvt Ltd. The importance of credit checks should not be undermined.
The credit report is a report that includes your credit score as well as other details on all your financial transactions related to credit. Your credit score is just a part of the report, which has a 3 digit number which will be anywhere in the range of 300 - 900. The credit score is a depiction of your creditworthiness, while your report will include payment history, number of loans, your outstanding balances of any loans, total of your credit limit, loan details of all loans taken from a diverse pool of lenders. The credit report is more like a report card for your credit, and the credit score is like the percentage you get on your report card. The higher your credit score is, the better it is for you. An average score of 750 is considered good for lenders to provide you with good deals and better rates of interest.
Banks, as part of their due diligence process, gauge the creditworthiness of individuals based on credit scores. The information listed on your credit report includes several variables that CIBIL uses to set your credit score. CIBIL score, therefore, reflects the extent of the probability of a default. An individual’s credit history is submitted to CIBIL by banks and financial institutions on a monthly basis.Q. What do high and low credit score determine?
A high CIBIL credit score essentially means less probability of a default. A low CIBIL credit score reflects high probability of a default.Q. How can you get your CIBIL score?
Log on to the CIBIL website and click on the ‘know your score’ tab to get a personalized credit score. Fill an online form which requires you to include details such as your name, date of birth, income, identity proof, address and phone number, in addition to the loans taken by you. Following payment of a certain sum, you will have to submit authentication details which include questions based on your credit history. After authentication, your credit score will be emailed to you.Q. Will opting for a credit card decrease my score?
If you have a zero outstanding balance on your old credit card, there is no reason to unduly worry about it and close it. If you have a credit card with a clear payment history, it will not only reflect your responsible credit behaviour but also keep your utilization rate low, which impacts your score positively.Q. Does zilch credit mean a good score?
There are many who avoid loans like the plague, hoping that their CIBIL score will then be perfect. Nothing can be farther from the truth. If you do not borrow, you do not have a credit history and, therefore, no credit bureau can assign a score. Consequently, you might find it difficult to get a loan. Timely repayments are of seminal importance to ensure that your score remains above 750.
Q. How to check CIBIL score without paying fee?
The fact is, CIBIL does not furnish your CIBIL report or score without levying a fee for the same. There are online websites and tools that offer to estimate your credit score based on certain input parameters but this score is just an estimated figure and not your actual CIBIL score. Actual score can only be obtained by paying the required fee.
Q. Why is CIBIL score important for customers?
Credit score is a distinct numeral assigned to each individual based on analysis of his/her credit report. A higher credit score signifies a health credit history and a lower score signifies a bad credit history. Any score between 700 and 900 is considered good while that below 700 needs to be improved in order to come in the good books of lending and banking entities. You CIBIL score depicts your credit-worthiness as a customers and is hence an important numeric figure. This score is looked up by banks when you apply for any credit channel like loan or credit cards.
Q. How is CIBIL score calculated?
CIBIL score is calculated by the Credit Information Bureau India limited in conjunction with various registered credit bureaus of the country. The score takes into account your payment history, payment pattern, your existing credit channels and the amount of credit that you own.
Q. Is it possible for the CIBIL Score to change?
The CIBIL Score will change based on the various factors such as any change in loan/credit account, credit repayment history, missed payments, etc. The score can also change when your lender carries out a hard check on your credit report. The information collected from various financial institutions and government agencies is received by CIBIL on a monthly basis. These financial institutions and government agencies are liable to provide credit/loan information of an individual to credit bureaus across India. Based on any information regarding a change in your financial creditability will cause the change in your credit score.
Q. Is there any other credit bureau apart from CIBIL that provides credit score/report in India?
There are three other credit bureaus in India apart from CIBIL. TransUnion CIBIL Limited is the oldest credit bureau that has been providing the individual credit score to lenders such as banks to check repayment capabilities of an applicant. The credit score generate by TransUnion CIBIL Limited is called a CIBIL Score, however, the credit reports and scores can also be taken from the other three credit bureaus such as - Experian, Equifax, and CRIF HighMark. They collect the financial information of an individual from various financial institutions and establishments to calculate and generate the credit scores and reports.
Q. What is Credit Information Report (CIR) and how it different from CIBIL Score?
Credit Information Report (CIR) is the complete summary of your credit history based on the last 5-7 years of credit and loan accounts. The CIR also contains personal and credit/loan account details including the inquiries’ made by lenders for your credit/loan application. The CIR is a record of your EMI repayments and/or credit card payments. The CIBIL Score is a part of the CIR. The score is an indication of your credit/financial health that is calculated based on the various factors that prepare the CIR.
Q. Who can access your CIBIL Score?
Your CIIBL Score can only be accessed by CIBIL Members such as certain banks, your lender, you, and other authorized establishments. These members are required to access the credit report/score only when you apply for a loan or a credit product. Apart from the banks, you can access your credit report/score by making a payment either to CIBIL or to any other credit bureaus.
Q. How can I check my CIBIL Report?
You can request for your CIBIL report by visiting the www.cibil.com. You will need to enter personal details such name, PAN card number, date of birth, gender, etc, clear the personal verification process, and make a fee payment in order to access your credit report. CIBIL provides credit reports online as well as a physical copy of it that is sent to your address. Currently, you can access your CIBIL report for free by requesting for it under the once a year 'free' offer.
Q. Why are the PAN card details required to check the CIBIL Score?
PAN Card is one of the unique identifiers that is related to all types of financial activities. Whether you are opening a bank account, transacting for a higher value, or taking a loan or credit card, PAN card is required for all these types of application. The credit bureaus in India use PAN card as the major tool that helps in identifying individuals when they are requesting for their credit report. If you are planning to obtain your credit report/score, make sure that you have your PAN card details with you.
Q. How can I get the CIBIL Score for free?
If you are requesting for your CIBIL for the first time in a year, you can get it for free. CIBIL offer once a year free credit score upon requests. There are no other websites that can provide you with the CIBIL Score for free. You will need to visit the CIBIL website www.cibil.com in order to request for your credit score/report.
Q. How CIBIL gets the information of your credit/loan history?
The CIBIL Members such as banks and other government agencies provide financial information of an individual on a monthly basis to CIBIL in exchange for the access to the credit reports and score prepared by CIBIL for determining their loan/credit applicant's financial credibility. CIBIL collects your financial information related to loans and credit accounts from your bank.
Q. Will there be any impact to my Credit Score when I check?
No. When you requesting for your own credit score/report, this is considered to be a soft check that doesn't have any impact on the credit score. But when you apply for a loan/credit, and your lender carries out a check, that'll be considered as a hard check. A hard check can impact your credit score negatively. If your loan application gets rejected, it is advisable not to immediately check with other banks, more hard checks can cause further damage to your credit health.
Q. Why do the lenders need to check the CIBIL Score?
While reviewing the loan/credit applications, it becomes essential for the banks to consider the repayment capability of an individual. The credit score and report helps the lenders determine the repayment capabilities of an individual. By referring to the credit score, the banks can identify the applicant repayment habits and decide whether the application can be approved or rejected. The CIBIL Score can be one of the deciding factors involved in determining the interest rate, credit limit, and other essential parts of the loan/credit account.
Q. What kind of credit/loan account details are included in the credit report?
A credit report will contain details of your credit and loan accounts. Even if you have closed a credit/loan account in the past, the credit report will include details of that account. The report will show the total credit/loan amount, EMI details, missed/late payment, lender’s name, and other related information. There could be instances where the details entered in the credit report are incorrect, you are advised to get in touch with the credit bureau to remove the incorrect details.
Q. How to remove errors or incorrect entries from the CIBIL Credit Information Report (CIR)?
If you have reviewed your Credit Information Report (CIR) and found errors or incorrect entries, you can get in touch with TransUnion CIBIL Limited directly to get it corrected. TransUnion CIBIL Limited will review your request and make necessary changes on receipt of a nominal fee. If you are planning to apply for a home loan, credit card or any other loan/credit product, you are advised to review your CIR so you can fix errors and get your credit score/report updated. You can file a dispute for the scrutiny of the information on your CIR, the credit bureau will carry out a check and update the CIR accordingly.
Q. Is it possible for CIBIL to delete or amend my credit information independently?
CIBIL is not allowed to delete or make any changes to the Credit Information Report (CIR) independently. CIBIL collects information from banking as well as non-banking financial companies to prepare CIR. The CIR might have incorrect entries or incorrect details that are collected from the CIBIL members, in that case, once you contact CIBIL to rectify the error, they will obtain clearance from the members along with necessary documents to make changes to the CIR. Hence, you are advised to review your CIR periodically to ensure your credit score is up to date.
Q. What is CIBIL 2.0?
CIBIL 2.0 is a new scoring model that TransUnion CIBIL Limited uses to calculate the credit report for individuals. Individuals with a new credit history of 6 months or lesser are assigned a score based on the risk factors involved in lending to new borrowers. The CIBIL 2.0 offers a risk index of 1-5 to individuals with new credit history, the higher the number, the risk of defaulting is lesser. The CIBIL 2.0 is designed to match the current economic and credit trends.
Q. How can the CIBIL Score affect my application for a new loan or a credit card?
Currently, when an individual applies for a loan or credit card, the lender (bank) will carry out a credit report/check to make sure the borrower has a positive record of credit repayment. The bank may refer to any of the credit bureaus to obtain a CIR of an individual. Based on the credit score, the bank may decide to approve your reject your credit/loan application. Though the credit score is not the only factor that decides whether your loan/credit is getting approved or not, it is one of the important factors that your lender will look into. A poor credit score will have more chance of loan application rejection compared to a healthy credit score.
Q. What is a good CIBIL Score?
The CIBIL Score ranges from 300 to 900 where 300 being a bad credit score to 900 being the best. A CIBIL credit score of 750 and above is considered to be a good score and has more chances of the loan application getting approved. If your credit score is bad, there are various methods that you can use to improve the score.
Q. What is minimum CIBIL score required for the approval of personal loans?
The banks and Non-banking Financial Companies (NBFC) do not publish the minimum credit score required for loan approvals, however, they do look into your credit score to make their credit lending decisions. A CIBIL score of 750 and above is considered to be a good credit score, however, the approval will still depend on other factors such as loan amount, employment status, credit history, etc. It is recommended to review the credit score periodically so you can identify the factors that are improving or decreasing your credit score. A credit score that is close to 900 has more chances of a loan application getting approved.
Q. What is minimum CIBIL score required for the approval of home loans?
Since banks and NBFCs are not required to publish the minimum threshold of a credit score for home loans, you are recommended to review your credit report/score and take necessary steps towards improving it. The credit score/report is a part of the loan application review, the banks have the liberty to take an independent decision based on their records as well.
Q. For how long CIBIL keeps the record of the defaulters?
CIBIL is not required to publish the record of the defaulters, however, the CIBIL CIR contains the details of the defaults of a particular individual. The details of such defaults are on record for a maximum of seven years. Any information that is over seven years old is not included in the CIR.
News About CIBIL Score
Credit scores will help the MSMEs
Most banks have moved aside when it came to lending funds to the micro and small companies, thanks to the doubtful finances and the lack of proper data on credit history. However, things can change with the credit bureaus that has changed retail lending’s aspect in India. As per bankers, such information can be extremely useful for the banks while taking decisions about lending funds to these organisations or companies. VP of CIBIL, Harshala Chandorkar stated that the CIBIL rank is awarded based on the information collected from various banks.
24th April 2017
Credit Card Payments High in India, Says CIBIL
A survey conducted by TransUnion Cibil says that credit card payments in India have improved a lot. At present, around 78% people pay their total amount due every month. These has decreased the delinquency rate in the country. The survey was conducted in 8 metros and involved 1,100 customers. India tops the chart when it comes to the percentage of people who pay more than the minimum amount due every month. According to the survey, 92% cardholders pay more than the minimum amount due.
24th April 2017
Most credit card holders have good repayment habit - TransUnion CIBIL
Credit card holders in India have ensured that their payment behaviour has improved with around 78% customers paying their monthly bills fully, leading to a low delinquency rate said TransUnion CIBIL, the credit information form. This was the takeaway from the TransUnion CIBIL’s survey that covered 1,100 customers across 8 metro cities in India.
Additionally, India also ranks the highest in the percentage of credit card users that make payments that is over their minimum balance due on their revolving debts every month in comparison to other countries. According to the study, 92% of credit card users pay a higher amount than the minimum amount that is due.
11th April 2017
Union Bank and Bank of India Sells Stake in TransUnion CIBIL
Union Bank and Bank of India have sold their full stake in TransUnion CIBIL for Rs.381.24 crores to TransUnion International Inc. Both the banks held 5% stake each. After the sale,TransUnion International will have 92.1% in CIBIL. Remaining shares are held by India Alternatives Private Equity Fund, Aditya Birla Trustee Co. Pvt. Ltd. and India Infoline Finance Ltd.
24th January 2017
Credit score will be deciding the amount of home loan EMI for you
The rate of interest that you have to pay for your home loan will be linked to the credit rating system. So, the discipline that you maintain while paying off your debt or outstanding balance will determine how much interest will be associated with your home loan. If the credit score goes down, will have to pay more interest. If the credit score goes up, you will have to pay lower interest.
Bank of Baroda is going to be the very first bank that links credit score to home loan. At present, banks will depend on the data provided to them by CIBIL (Credit Information Bureau of India).
11th January 2017
CIBIL Scores To Become More Important To Individual
While banks and other lenders have been using CIBIL score to decide if a loan application is to be approved or not, such approvals will get dearer now since Bank of Baroda has decided to switch to ‘scoring based pricing’. The bank’s M D, P S Jayakumar, said that they were already using this method where they would decide the cost of the loan based on the CIBIL score of the applicant. WHile such a system is not a new thing, it was only being used for corporate customers, however, now it will be used in retail lending as well. He also said that switching to this method will allow the bank to make their due diligence obligations easier to manage and also reduce the possibility of approving a loan that may end up in defaults.
19th July 2016
Bank of Baroda to Issue Loans Based on Credit Score
Bank of Baroda plans on introducing credit score-based lending to the retail mortgage sector. Under this policy, the bank will issue loans based on individual credit scores instead of a uniform rate that does not take into account credit quality.
The move has already begun, with the bank announcing that it had made the switch internally and would start issuing loans based on CIBIL scores.
The aim behind this move is to reduce the number of loan defaulters and enable banks to improve their retail loan portfolio.
While corporate borrowers have been issued loans based on credit score, retail segments in the Indian market have not been grouped under this policy.
In this way, loan applicants with a good credit score can avail loans that are a possible 50-75 basis points lower than those with a poor credit score.
14th July 2016
CIBIL Expands its Reach in Micro and Small Loans Segment
CIBIL will start providing solutions and information to micro and small lenders so as to enable them to make sound decisions, to drive credit penetration and to increase their base of customers. According to the MD and CEO of CIBIL, Satish Pillai, by growing their reach, CIBIL will be able to provide better solutions, information and insights so as to help increase their reach.
The President of Microfinance Institutions Network, Manoj Kumar Nambiar believes that the foundation of all lending based decisions is credit information and CIBIL’s decision will help drive micro and small lenders forward and to reach greater heights. Availability of solutions and insights from CIBIL has contributed significantly to growth in credit segment which increasing penetration of credit and inclusion of finances. According to CIBIL Insights, retail loans have increased at an average CAGR of 28 percent over the previous three years.
29th June 2016
CIBIL Detect: India’s first Fraud Database
CIBIL, along with TransUnion, has launched a database for fraud detection called CIBIL Detect. This is India’s first centralized repository for information on confirmed frauds, high-risk cases, suspected fraud cases, cases under investigation, misuse of data, or attempt to misuse data. The repository will also house information on vendors and agents that are of elevated risk. Credit grantors, banks and financial institutions will be able to share and access this information. The system will also keep a record of the modus operandi of bank-related fraud by criminals or suspects in the past. Better collaboration and sharing of this kind of information was much needed in the financial and banking industry. CIBIL Detect will work nationwide and protect banks and financial lenders as much as possible against fraud.
28th June 2016
SBI To Permit Education Loan Defaulters To Apply For Jobs
Job applicants who have defaulted on their education loan repayments may be permitted to apply for jobs with the State Bank of India as well as any of its associate banks. Managing Director of State Bank of Hyderabad, Santanu Mukherjee, stated that the recruitment process would probably be reconsidered, only with regards to education loan defaulters. However, candidates with a poor loan repayment or credit card history, as well as poor CIBIL scores will not be eligible to apply for said jobs. Bank Employees Federation of India general secretary Pradip Biswas also stated that candidates who have defaulted on their education loans should not be clubbed in the same bracket as other defaulters, since they are dependant on employment to make repayment.
4th May 2016