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TransUnion CIBIL Ltd., earlier known as Credit Information Bureau Ltd., is among the leading credit information companies in India. Incorporated in 2000, it is popularly known as CIBIL credit bureau. The bureau gathers and maintains records of your payments related to credit products such as loans and credit cards. Lenders, financial institutions like banks and non-banking finance companies submit your credit records to CIBIL every month. The credit bureau uses this information and computes your CIBIL score and creates a detailed credit report. Lenders use this report and score to measure your creditworthiness and assess whether you can repay the borrowed amount.
This bureau is licensed by the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) and is overseen by the Credit Information Companies (Regulation) Act of 2005. It has more than 2,400 members including banks, financial institutions, non-banking financial companies, and housing finance companies. The credit bureau maintains credit records of more than 550 million consumers and businesses.
A CIBIL score is a 3-digit number that represents your creditworthiness. It ranges from 300-900. The closer your score is to 900, the better the chances are of you getting a loan or a credit card approved. A higher score suggests you have been a responsible borrower and have a good credit history. As per general standards, a score of 750 and above gives you quicker access to loans and credit cards.
There are four main factors that make up the score:
|Credit Type and Duration||25%|
One of the biggest factors that affects your CIBIL score is payment history. You should make it a priority to pay your credit card bills as well as loan EMIs on time. Avoid late payment of bills at any given time as it will bring down your score. As per a recent CIBIL analysis, a 30-day delinquency can reduce your CIBIL score by 100 points (as reported by Financial Express).
The total amount of debt you have at a given point of time has a major effect on your CIBIL score. Credit utilisation ratio is the amount of credit used by you in proportion to your combined credit limit. You should maintain a low credit utilisation ratio at all times to get a high score. As per experts, it is advised to use only up to 30% of your total credit limit.
A long credit history helps to improve your score. It suggests that you have a good experience with handling credit. Lenders prefer offering credit to people who have a rich history because it makes assessing you as a borrower, easier. Therefore, it is advised to avoid closing old cards as you will lose out on the long credit history and good repayment behaviour associated with it.
It is important to have a decent credit mix. Maintaining a healthy balance of secured and unsecured credit helps to boost your CIBIL score. You need to make sure that you don’t have high secured credit or unsecured credit and instead try and maintain a good balance of both.
Avoid making multiple credit inquiries within a short period of time. When you inquire to a bank or a financial institution about a loan or a credit card, the lender will pull out your CIBIL report. Such an inquiry is called a “hard inquiry” and it has a negative impact on your score. Multiple credit inquiries can bring your score down. Therefore, it is advised to inquire for credit only when you actually need it. Meanwhile, when you check your own score or report, it is called a “soft inquiry”. You can check your report multiple times and it will not have any effect on your CIBIL score as soft inquiries are not recorded on your report.
In order to improve your CIBIL score, you need to be consistent in paying bills on time and be a responsible borrower. Here are some of the ways that will help you improve your score.
At the end of the day, any money from a line of credit is borrowed money. You need to repay it to your lender, with or without interest, depending on the type of credit line, and your repayment behaviour. So, use your credit card, loan amount, or any other type of borrowing wisely. Also, do not use or borrow more than you can afford to repay. This could lead you into a debt-trap.
Apart from being charged late payment fees on your late payments, this repayment behaviour will also get reported to the credit bureaus, affecting your score. If you have multiple credit card payments and loan EMIs to make, it is advised to set up payment reminders or due date alerts to get more organised. This way you never forget making your payment. You could also set up a direct debit arrangement with your lender, where your payments get automatically deducted from your savings/current account on the due date. This way, you never have to worry remembering due dates, or about late or missed payments.
vAs mentioned earlier, you should ideally not exceed 30% of your total credit card limit. This is especially important if you apply for a home loan in the future. When you apply for a home loan, banks will assess your debt-to-income (DTI) ratio. This ratio evaluates your total debt with respect to your total income. If your debt exceeds 50% of your income, banks are more likely to reject your application. Another reason why you should maintain a low credit utilisation ratio is to not appear credit hungry. If most of your expenses are being borne by your credit lines, you will appear as a borrower who is unable to manage their expenses on their own.
If you have defaulted on any payments in the past, it will be reflected in your credit history and will bring your CIBIL score down. Make sure to pay off the unpaid amount and close the account instead of opting for a settlement. You should ensure that the account gets a 'closed' status. Also, it is best to get a formal closure certificate from the lender for the account.
You should check your credit report periodically to understand your credit health. This should be done to ensure that your credit report is free of any errors related to your credit accounts. This is important because any incorrect information recorded on your report could bring down your score through no fault of your own. It is important to identify and rectify such errors at the earliest.
In 2017, the RBI made it compulsory for all the credit bureaus in the country including CIBIL to offer one free credit report to consumers per calendar year. You can get a free copy of your CIBIL report by visiting the official website of CIBIL.
As India’s leading CIC (Credit Information Company), CIBIL enjoys considerable clout in the Indian credit system. But who makes up this prestigious institution?
CIBIL has a diverse ownership structure consisting of well-known banking and non-banking companies. Its major stakeholder is Trans Union International Inc. with about 66% of the total share. The remaining 34% is held by 8 other parties with stakes ranging between 1% to 6% each.
TransUnion deals in data analytics to help businesses in decisioning processes for better risk management. It is also a leader in information management.
|Trans Union Interantional Inc.||66%|
|ICICI Bank Ltd.||6%|
|Bank of Baroda||5%|
|Bank of India||5%|
|Indian Overseas Bank||5%|
|Union Bank of India||5%|
|Aditya Birla Trustee Co. Pvt. Ltd.||4%|
|India Alternatives Pvt. Equity Fund||2.9%|
|India Infoline Finance Ltd.||1%|
An individual’s or company’s credit history is evaluated to generate a Credit Information Report (CIR) from which is derived a credit score known as the CIBIL TransUnion Score. This report and score form an integral part of a lender’s credit approval process. Credit scores range between 300 and 900. The higher the score, the more creditworthy the borrower is, which translates to quick approvals and better interest rates.
CIBIL provides credit reports and scores to those who inquire for them. This includes individuals, institutions and lenders. When an application for a loan or credit card is submitted, lenders check the applicant’s credit scores to ascertain whether it satisfies eligibility criteria. In general, a score of 750 or higher is considered good.
Prior to the introduction of credit information bureaus in India, credit was dispelled based on the apparent creditworthiness of customers. There was little to no tracking of credit histories nor was there any useful analysis or collation of credit data of various borrowing entities. This led to defaults which were loss-making propositions for lending institutions.
As time passed, regulators began emphasising on the need for stricter credit approval mechanisms. Based on recommendations by the Siddiqui Committee, India’s first credit information company was set up. CIBIL has been in operation since the year 2000 and brought in much-needed transparency to the credit system. In 2004, consumer bureau services were launched followed by commercial bureau services in 2006.
The CIBIL TransUnion score was first brought to banks in 2007 and later to individuals in 2011. Two noteworthy services were launched in the year 2010 viz. CIBIL Detect and CIBIL Mortgage Check. These were information databases on activities considered highly risky in nature and mortgages respectively.
Today, almost all banks rely heavily on credit scores from credit bureaus to analyse borrowers’ creditworthiness. By reviewing credit information reports (CIRs), lending institutions are now able to assess and manage risk better. This helps in reduction of NPAs contributing to a healthier overall credit system in the country. Borrowers are now able to access their credit reports and scores to better understand their chances when it comes to being approved for a loan. They can work towards building their credibility before opting for a loan thereby rejecting their chances of rejection. Awareness on CIBIL and its services is on the rise with many initiatives being launched to educate the masses on the need to maintain financial discipline and the consequences of lapses.
CIBIL works with the mission and vision to provide customers solutions that will facilitate making the best decisions, supported by suitable technology and services to make the required information available to them in the best way possible. Even with the presence of other credit bureaus in India, it is always the company’s endeavour to be their audience’s first choice.
A numeric score, released by CIBIL, indicating an individual's creditworthiness. It is calculated based on credit data collected from member financial institutions that have extended credit to individuals in the form of loans or credit cards. Higher the score, stronger the individual's creditworthiness. CIBIL scores a.k.a. credit scores, are widely used as a key parameter when determining a borrower's eligibility for a loan or credit card. Read on to find out how CIBIL scores are computed and how it affects your loan and credit card approval.
A comprehensive report compiling an individual's credit information, sourced by CIBIL from various member lending financial institutions viz. banks and credit card issuers. A CIBIL report a.k.a. credit report contains pertinent information about an individual's borrowing history and repayment patterns including delays and defaults. This report acts as a key source of credit information to assess a borrower's creditworthiness. Information in this report helps an individual understand how his/her credit score has been affected.
CIBIL scores are determined based on a number of factors including how often and regularly you service debt obligations. Find out what impacts your credit score resulting in a good or bad credit rating.
Dogged by a bad credit report or credit score? Mediocre credit ratings have your bank officers on edge about how much they ought to lend you? Learn about how you can get your CIBIL rating to look better than ever before.
Do you think CIBIL scores are just an elaborate government ploy to get you to pay your credit card bills on time? Does your mom worry that the neighbour’s son has a better credit score than you? Get the real deal on CIBIL scores and what they mean to you with these important facts about credit scores.
Did you know….For all those questions left unanswered and more, we list out the most popular questions about CIBIL, credit ratings, reports and scores.
What goes into the making of a good CIBIL score? In this segment, we deconstruct a credit score to find out what you should or should not do to get a good credit score.
CIBIL reports are built over a period of time and so also your score. A good credit rating is a reflection of your credit habits. What are good credit habits?
You might get your cheque in the box just in time to clear a payment due on your loan or credit card, but paying your bills isn’t the only way to stay in CIBIL’s good books. Get the inside scoop on the mistakes you should avoid to keep your credit score from going bad.
Knowing your credit report is great; but when it comes to CIBIL, there’s more than meets the score. Get the dope on the lesser known facts about credit scores including how they are computed and what really gets your CIBIL report going.
The right credit score will make you feel right at home at any bank. Home loans are often high quantum, long-term loans that make lenders wary about whose homes they’re financing. What CIBIL score should you have to impress your bank for the most affordable housing loan?
Nothing personal about your creditworthiness when it comes to taking out a personal loan. Being an unsecured loan, you’ll want to have your credit score in just the right range to make sure you get your bank to fund you instantly. How high should your credit score be to get the best personal loan in town?
Fuel your dream ride with a range of car loans that suit your pocket. Walk in with a good CIBIL score and drive away with a new set of wheels.Check if your CIBIL score qualifies you for the car loan of your choice.
If you think CIBIL is a secret service agency that runs an underground operation of loan and credit card dealers, think again! Get your facts straight and but those myths about CIBIL and credit scores.
Getting a loan or a credit card? Let’s talk CIBIL. Like ‘em or love ‘em, CIBIL is definitely here to stay and is getting bigger. Credit assessment is finding new applications in India’s diverse financial system. Insurance? Utilities? What other products and services will CIBIL make its mark on next?
What’s a model borrower like you doing with a bad credit report? Maybe your bank forgot to record a payment or they got your payment dates wrong. Whatever got you at the wrong end of the stick, we help you find a way to get your CIBIL report back in order.
How is a credit report built at CIBIL? What are the key points to look out for when reading a CIBIL credit report?Check off what you need to look out for with our handy CIBIL report checklist.
A CIBIL score is a numeric representation of your creditworthiness based on information contained in your report. A CIBIL report is a comprehensive record of your credit transactions based on your credit history. This is just one of the many differences between a CIBIL score and a CIBIL report.
Monitoring credit score, at regular intervals, is pivotal to figure out where you stand. Normally, CIBIL score ranges from 300-900, but it is advisable to score higher than 750 to get approvals on loan application and credit card. Every time a lender updates new information on the credit account, credit score alters. Check your Free Credit Score by following simple steps.
Founded in 2000, the Credit Information Bureau of India Limited (CIBIL) collects a record of an individual’s loans and credit cards. CIBIL, which is ISO 27001:2005 certified, is divided into two divisions, namely, consumer bureau and commercial bureau. The consumer bureau (launched in 2004) has over 260 million records while the commercial bureau (launched in 2006) has over 12 million records. TransUnion International and Dun and Bradstreet are CIBIL’s technical partners.Q. What’s a CIBIL score?
Banks, as part of their due diligence process, gauge the creditworthiness of individuals based on credit scores. The information listed on your credit report includes several variables that CIBIL uses to set your credit score. CIBIL score, therefore, reflects the extent of the probability of a default. An individual’s credit history is submitted to CIBIL by banks and financial institutions on a monthly basis.Q. Is there only one credit bureau in the country?
In addition to CIBIL, there are three other credit bureaus in India, namely, Experian Credit Information Co. of India Pvt. Ltd, Equifax Credit Information Services Pvt. Ltd and CRIF High Mark Credit Information Services Pvt. Ltd. Since all the three have different scoring patterns, your score may vary. Nevertheless, if you have a good CIBIL score, you will get favourable scores by others too.Q. Will checking your score have negative repercussions?
Experts suggest checking one’s CIBIL score once a year. The practice is often considered a ‘soft inquiry’ as opposed to credit card issuers asking CIBIL for your score, known as a ‘hard inquiry’ (mentioned in the ‘enquiry section’ of your report). Also, if you apply for a loan with various banks at the same time, it will result in hard inquiries which may have a negative impact your score.Q. What’s a control number?
The control number is a nine digit unique number that helps CIBIL track your credit report. The control number is generated if and when banks access your credit report.Q. What happens if there is no information available for the details I provide?
If there is no information available for CIBIL to generate a credit report for you, then the money that you paid towards the report will be refunded.Q. How does the CIBIL scoring system work?
CIBIL’s scoring system takes into account all your previous credit information from all types of loans to credit cards, etc. and considers your performance (whether you’ve paid on time or delayed payments, or defaulted on payments entirely) and collates all this information into a numerical score. The score is on a scale from 300-900, and scores above 700 are eligible for loans from most of the established lenders. The closer your score is to 900, the better your chances are of having a loan or credit card approved. In addition to a numerical score, lenders from whom you’ve previously borrowed are able to leave comments about your credit performance against the score. Whether the comments they leave are good or bad is entirely up to you and how manage your finances.
Maintaining a good Credit Score is very important. Let’s give you some ways to improve your Credit Score. Follow these tips and you’re on the right track.
Be Regular With Bill Payments
Start paying those bills on time and your Credit Score will gradually improve.
Foot The Entire Bill
Paying only the minimum amount due on your Credit Card is not a good idea. Pay the full bill.
Increase Your Credit Limit
If you have a lower credit limit and still max out your Credit Card, that hurts your Credit Score. Boost your Credit Limit and use a lower limit. That’s better.
Foreclosing Loans? Not A Good Idea
If you think making a lump-sum payment on your loan will boost your Credit Score, think again. Pay your EMIs on time to show that you have a good repayment history. Ready to improve your Credit Score? Let’s get you started by getting you the perfect Credit Card.
It is important for businesses to understand what their CIBIL rank as well as Company Credit Report (CCR) is before they apply for a loan, whether from a private lender or a government agency. This is a report of their creditworthiness as a business. The CIBIL rank ranges from 1 to 10, with 1 being the highest. The CCR is based on data that CIBIL obtains from different financial institutions and is a record of the company’s entire credit history. Since past payment patterns can predict future behavior, lenders use these two parameters when deciding on providing or underwriting loans. For Micro, Small, and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs), lenders give preferential rates to those with a CIBIL rank ranging from 4 to 1. The chances of an MSME securing a loan is also higher if its CIBIL rank is high. It also makes it easier for businesses to access loans and simplifies the process for them. Loan approvals are also faster for such MSMEs with high credit ratings. Since access to capital is crucial for MSMEs at the right time, having a high credit rating is vital. The government of India is now taking steps to facilitate easier and faster access to credit for MSMEs as they generate growth and employment opportunities for the Indian economy.
11 February 2020
A CIBIL survey reveals that the millennial generation is more credit savvy, conscious, and careful than the generations before them. They check their scores regularly and take steps to correct it if required. Approximately 51% of millennials who had CIBIL scores below 700 improved their scores by an average of 65 points within 6 months of checking them. While the average credit score of non-millennials is 734, the average score for millennials stood at 740. CIBIL updates and reports are monitored by the millennial generation on an average of 6 times per year. Millennials amount for 67% of borrowers, or 84 lakh individuals. Within 3 months of checking their scores, 64% applied for credit with 34% availing a new loan or credit card. The increased credit awareness is attributed in large part due to online aggregators because of which millennials are aware that a better credit score can attract lower interest rates on loans. This generation prefers unsecured loans, according to the survey, with 72% of loans availed by them belonging to the consumer durable, personal, and credit cards categories. Auto loans and two-wheeler loans contribute to the largest amount of secured loans, around 9% each. There was a 20% increase in the number of millennials availing a credit card in the 2018-2019. The state with highest average CIBIL score among millennials was Gujarat at 747, followed by Haryana at 743, and Rajasthan at 742. Approximately 51% of millennials who are self monitoring come from the states of Delhi, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and Karnataka.
5 December 2019
Vijayasai Reddy, a Rajya Sabha MP from YSR Congress Party on Thursday urged the central government to withdraw the requirement of CIBIL score for availing agriculture loans immediately. Speaking at the Rajya Sabha Zero Hour, he stated that it was important for farmers to have timely access to agriculture and that some of the recent guidelines issued by the Reserve Bank of India when it comes to banks’ lending agriculture loans were highly objectionable. He highlighted that banks were refusing to grant agricultural loans to farmers based on transactions recorded in CIBIL as a defaulter or timely instalments. He added that the stringent regulations laid down by the RBI were making the farmers more helpless. The MP went on to question how the provision of offering agricultural loans based on the farmers CIBIL score would be reasonable given that 75 to 80 per cent of the farmers are affected by the consequences of floods, hail and drought in the country.
28 November 2019
India jumped 14 places to 63 in the World Bank’s Ease of Doing Business ranking after it was shown that the country’s banking system showed improvement in six out of ten parameters measured.
India however saw its rating fall down in the registration of properties category. However, its performance for the three category - getting credit, protecting minor investors and enforcing contracts remained the same and saw no changes.
India’s ranking in the index for World Bank’s Ease of Doing Business 2019 report had gone up 23 places to end at 77th position.
The top 10 economies which showed the most improvement and ultimately moved up the rankings were India, Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Togo, Bahrain, Tajikistan, Pakistan, Kuwait, China, and Nigeria.
According to the report, all these economies implemented one-fifth off all the reforms recorded worldwide which helped them move up the rankings.
31 October 2019
Startups have come up with an innovative way to share data and rate users, with a rating system along the lines of a CIBIL or credit score system.
The rating system is aimed at rewarding good and weeding out bad actors in the startup biosphere. A consortium of startups across various verticals have proposed this rating system, which will use users’ offline data to assess them on aspects like creditworthiness or eligibility for a service.
This is seen as a way for startups to collectively benefit from the user data they each possess and incentivising users who abide by certain standards to be set.
The platform will take user’s consent before sharing this data with other companies, though legal experts warn there could be some potential for misuse since Indian does not have strong data protection laws.
15 October 2019
Several farmers from Andhra Pradesh have demanded a change in the current agri-loan system. The current system uses CIBIL scores to gauge the creditworthiness of applicants. As a number of farmers had defaulted on loans, they have been finding it difficult to apply for fresh loans.
A number of afflicted farmers are unaware of how a CIBIL score affects their creditworthiness and unsure of how to improve their score.
With banks enforcing the RBI-mandated CIBIL score clause in the issue of loans, many applicants are being left high and dry. Intending to tackle this issue, farmer associations have opposed the implementation of this system. They contend that most farmers will be denied loans under such a system, since many are already facing losses due to crop failure and other constraints.
Banks have stated they are compelled to implement the CIBIL score clause until informed otherwise by the RBI.
19 August 2019
The Government of India has finally decided to infuse Rs.70,000 crore in public sector banks (PSBs) with bad loans—a move that will help boost economy, S&P Global Ratings, a US-based credit rating agency said. According to the credit bureau, the move that was proposed in this year’s budget is likely to help improve bank’s credit growth and will help boost the economy. The capital infusion may help some banks to free themselves from central bank’s corrective action and start lending again. However, the credit firm still believes that public sector banks require substantial reforms so as to improve risk management, efficiency, service quality, and diversity in terms of products the such banks offer. They also said that while the government had infused money before in public sector banks, the growth or progress on reforms has been really slow.
S&P also said that the Government may also provide liquidity support to Non-Banking Finance Companies (NBFCs). Recently, while giving her maiden speech in the budget, Finance Minister?Nirmala Sitharaman?reportedly said that bad loans in commercial banks have been reduced by Rs.1 trillion in the past year. She also said that over Rs.4 trillion have been recovered through the implementation of?Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code (IBC)?and a few other measures that were undertaken by the present government.
15 July 2019
Following a number of defaults and downgrades in the credit market, Securities and Exchange Board of India (Sebi) has rolled out stricter norms for credit rating agencies, reported PTI. The move comes from the market regulator with an aim to increase transparency in the credit rating market. Under the tighter norms, credit rating agencies will need to start disclosing the probability of default for the issuers they rate. The credit rating companies will also have to to specify upfront key details, which they think could lead to a default. In addition to the details, the credit rating agencies should also provide their rationale for their rating. The CRAs also need to describe various probabilities that could eventually lead to a default of the debt instruments. It is expected that CRAs should not only list the basic general risk factors, but also stress on areas specific to the debt issuer.
The move comes from the market regulator following the recent defaults by Infrastructure Leasing and Financial Services Ltd (IL&FS) that led to a liquidity crisis among non-bank lenders in India has focused attention again on credit rating agencies. As per Sebi circular, credit rating companies will now create a uniform probability of default benchmark for each rating category on their website, for one-year, two-year and three-year cumulative default rates, both for the short term and long term. The market regulator has also defined terms that rating agencies would need to use to describe the liquidity position of issuer—strong, adequate, stretched and poor. Sebi has toughened regulations for credit rating agencies over the past three years to boost monitoring, bring clarity for investors and increase accountability.
17 June 2019
The Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code 2016 (IBC) process has helped recover Rs.70,000 crore worth bad loans in FY19, as per a latest from CIBIL. IBC is a key economic reform, which has instilled a significantly better sense of credit discipline. The recovery rate for the 94 cases resolved through IBC is 43%, as against 26.5% via earlier mechanisms. CIBIL further estimated the banking sector’s gross NPA (aggregate) has reduced to 10% in March-end 2019, from 11.5% in the previous year. CRISIL President, Gurpreet Chhatwal stated that, the recovery rate is also twice the liquidation value for these 94 cases, which underscores the value maximisation possible through the IBC process. Some of the resolution mechanisms along with IBC are the Debt Recovery Tribunal; Securitisation and Reconstruction of Financial Assets and Enforcement of Securities Interest Act; and Lok Adalat.
As of March 2019, the number of outstanding cases under the IBC process is 1,143, of which 32% cases are pending beyond the 270-day period slotted for the corporate insolvency resolution process. A report from the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Board of India states that almost Rs.2.02 lakh crore of debt pertaining to 4,452 cases was disposed of even before admission into the IBC process
20 May 2019
The Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) is examining the credit rating agencies regarding how well they assessed loans against shares provided by debt mutual funds. Recently, the buzz in the financial sector was that several corporates were unable to make timely repayments. This caused a huge str as the mutual funds were unable to pay fixed maturity plans to their subscribers on time. As per reports, SEBI has asked credit bureaus to provide details on the available cover amount on all outstanding ratings of NCDs (non-convertible debentures) that are backed by shares as collateral. The capital market regulator has also asked for the parameters used to assess the instruments.
Loan against shares was brought into scrutiny when mutual funds allowed Essel group’s promoters sell their assets and repay debt during massive cash crunch. Ideally, debt repayment should have been done by selling stocks. The time given to Essel group’s cash-strapped promoter affected fixed maturity plans payments of Kotak Mahindra AMC and HDFC AMC.
9 May 2019
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